Diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
There are three main types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and requires the person to inject insulin.
- Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.
- Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
1. Gingival and periodontal disease
· Patients with diabetes are more prone to develop periodontal disease.
· The patients may exhibit a fulminating periodontitis with periodontal abscess formation and inflamed painful abscess .This may lead to tooth mobility.
· Gingival fluid in the diabetes has more glucose level which favours the growth of micro flora.
· Insulin dependent diabetic children tend to have more destruction around the first molars and incisors than else where
2. Median rhomboidal glossitis
· Diabetes is considered to be factor for median rhomboidal glossitis as frequency of abnormal blood glucose level in diabetes.
· There is also impairment of blood supply to dorsum of tongue due to arteriosclerosis changes in blood vessels supplying the area.
3. Oral candidiasis
· It is infection of Candida albicans which occur due to encouragement of local multiplication of candida albicans due to impaired glucose level.
4. Localised osteitis
5. Burning mouth
· This is the one of the most common problem in diabetes.
· It is associated with variety of symptoms like burning sensation of tongue and other parts of mouth.
6. Trigeminal nerve involvement
· Diabetes neuropathy is recognised as polymorphic condition as when manifested as polyneuropathy on the assumption the trigeminal nerve might be involved.
· Increased caries activity due to xerostomia(dry mouth). If you are diabetic, the increase of sugar in your saliva leads to a decrease in the quantity of your saliva in your mouth.Suffering from dry mouth can lead to complications such as dental caries, because saliva contributes to a natural cleaning of teeth. Moreover, a lack of moisture leads to the development of ulcers, fungal infections and difficulty to wear dentures .
· Fissuring and drying of tongue
Tips for Diabetics
- Brush twice daily with soft tooth brush.
- You should brush your teeth at least twice a day, but preferably after every meal. You should also floss your teeth to complete the brushing by removing plaque and food particles that can remain between teeth and the surrounding gums. Because there is less saliva in the mouth, which normally contributes to a natural cleaning of teeth, a meticulous dental hygiene is therefore very important.
- Rinse your mouth with water after every meal.
- Avoid high sugar foods and include fibrous food in your diet
- Visit your dentist regularly. Periodontal disease can reach an advanced level without necessarily feeling any kind of pain, and without your gums bleeding. Regular dental checkups, preferably every three months, are then recommended to detect any signs of gingivitis or periodontitis, but also dental caries.
- If you are denture wearer , clean your denture properly and remove your denture while you sleep.
- Drink ample of water.
- Chew xylitol chewing gum.