Saturday, 15 February 2014


A bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a protein in the transforming growth factor (TGF) family that can stimulate the production of bone and cartilage.

The discovery of the bone morphogenetic protein is generally attributed to Dr. Marshall Urist in the early part of the 1960s. He discovered that demineralized, pulverized segments of bone prompted the formation of new bone when implanted in rabbit pouches. Dr. Urist is the one who proposed the term bone morphogenetic protein.

There are currently 20 types of bone morphogenetic protein recognized.BMP2-BMP7, were considered part of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. BMP1 is what’s known as a metalloprotease, which is an enzyme whose catalytic process involves metal. Each BMP is located on a specific chromosome. Bone morphogenetic proteins work by interacting with cell receptors known as bonemorphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs). BMPR's then signal other proteins called SMADs to induce growth. This process contributes to the development of the central nervous system (CNS), the heart, and cartilage. It also contributes to post-natal bone development.

These proteins all play a part in the early formation of the embryo. If the processes and signals they create are disrupted, it can affect the development of the skeletal system and overall body patterning. Research has found that 70% of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension is caused by mutation in BMPR2. Mutations on the chromosomes, and the related bone morphogenetic protein, can also cause abnormalities and disorders of the skeleton. Cancerous diseases many times involve a malfunctioning of the BMP signaling system as well.

Members of the bone morphogenetic protein have been found to be useful in therapy for the spine.The BMP-2 and BMP-7 received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for use on humans because they have been found to help with issues where bone structures suffer from non-union and delayed union, two aspects involved in the bone healing process .BMP's can improve dental implant success.Because of their osteogenic potential, BMPs are of tremendous interest as therapeutic agents for healing fractures of bones,preventing osteoporosis, treating periodontal defects and enhancing bone formation around alloplastic materials implanted in bone.

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